History of the origin of gymnastics. Athleticism
Gymnastics is an exercise system thatwas formed in ancient Greece even before our era. There are two versions of the origin of this word. The first one is "gymnasium", which in translation means "train" or "train". The second: "hymn" - "naked", as the ancient Greeks practiced physical exercises without clothes.
At that time, gymnastics included militaryexercises, general development, horse riding, ritual dances, swimming. This included also those that were held at the Olympic Games: running, fighting, jumping, fisticuffs, throwing, riding chariots.
History of the origin of gymnastics
The fall of the Roman Empire contributed to the developmentscholasticism, obscurantism, asceticism, as a result of which gymnastics (as well as other achievements of ancient art and culture) was forgotten. In the XIV-XV centuries. Humanism has established itself. Public thought was aimed at protecting dignity and freedom, comprehensive development of the individual, special attention was paid to physical health. Only then did people turn again to the ancient culture and gradually began to introduce into the system of upbringing and its physical side - gymnastics.
A significant place in its development is occupied by scientificworks and works of writers, philosophers, doctors. For example, the composition of the Italian physician Hieronymus Mercurialis "On the Art of Gymnastics", the novels of the writer François Rabelais, the works of Pestalozzi (the Swiss teacher), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (French Enlightener, philosopher).
In the XVIII - early XIX century.in Germany appeared the flow of philanthropists who created schools with an emphasis on physical education - gymnastics. Exercises were developed by G. Fit and I. Guts-Mutsom. They also taught.
The German gymnast F.L.Jan has developed a system of "turnin". This included exercises on horizontal bars, rings, crossbeams, bars, horse. Thus ended the ancient history of the emergence of gymnastics. A photo of one of the representatives of modern sports is placed below.
Gymnastics as a sport
In 1817 the students of F.Amorosa began to be held in front of the public in Paris. In 1859, attempts were made to revive the Olympic Games. So the history of the emergence of gymnastics as a sport began.
Still the disciples F. Yan and M.Tyrsha was measured by force, competed in exercises. However, gymnastics was recognized as a sport only in 1896, when it was included in the program of the Olympic Games. The basis of the first competitions included support jumps, exercises on shells. In 1932, sprinting, shot put, rope climbing were added.
The history of the origin of gymnastics tells aboutThe fact that for a long time in the Olympic Games men participated, and only since 1928 - women. First - in team competitions, and eventually with singles.
How the International Federation was created
In 1881, the European Association was created.The structure consisted of Belgium, France, the Netherlands. It expanded rapidly, and in 1897 was reorganized into the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG). To date, it includes 122 countries. She, in turn, is a member of the General Association of International Sports Federations and is recognized by the IOC (International Olympic Committee). The FIG consists of the executive, technical committees for gymnastics, aerobics, acrobatics and jumping commissions. Their members are elected every four years.
The first world championships in sportsgymnastics began to be held in 1903. Athletes competed in both group and personal competitions. Until 1996, the participants performed both compulsory exercises and voluntary exercises. Then only the last ones were left in the program.
Sports gymnastics, the history of the emergence andthe development of which goes far into antiquity, in the modern world has revived in Europe. European championships among men began to be held in 1955, and among women - in 1957. A personal championship was played out. Since 1994 - also the command.
In Luxembourg in 1982, a congress waswhich decided to establish a European gymnastics union. He was engaged in development, improvement, distribution of gymnastics in the countries of Europe. As the history of the emergence of gymnastics shows, this fascinating, wonderful sport was presented not only at the Olympic Games, European championships and the world, but also at international tournaments, continental competitions.
Physical exercises with weights (weights,dumbbells, barbells) - this is athletic gymnastics, the history of which begins in the IV century BC. e. The goal is to improve health, develop muscle.
To participate in competitions in Ancient Greeceallowed athletes who lifted a heavy load. Special exercises with gymnastic elements were developed. At first they mimicked the process of labor, fighting. Over time, playing sports have become a manifestation of culture. In the XIX-XX centuries. a lot of manuals are published with the description of exercises for the development of muscle groups with burdening. There is an interest in muscular, strong people. The first championships among weightlifters, wrestlers began to be held.
Athleticism in Russia
The history of the origin of gymnastics is closely related tothe name of the physician VM Krayevsky. In 1885 he organized an amateur circle on athletics. Twelve years later the first society was opened in St. Petersburg. But after 1917, athleticism fades into the background. Promptly develop other power sports.
The development of athletic gymnastics in Russia was difficult. For ideological reasons, bodybuilding was considered a harmful occupation, but in 1987 weightlifter Yu. P. Vlasov created the All-Union Federation of athleticism.