Erythrocytes, or red blood cells - thisblood cells that are responsible primarily for the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of other organs, as well as for the removal of carbon dioxide from the human body. Hemolytic anemia is a very dangerous condition of the body, which is primarily associated with a breakdown in the structure of red blood cells and their premature death.
Hemolytic anemia: causes
In modern medicine, it is customary to allocate twothe main groups of such diseases are congenital and acquired forms of the disease. Congenital anemia is in most cases hereditary diseases that are associated with an abnormal structure of the erythrocyte wall, an uncharacteristic composition, or the shape of these cells. As for the acquired diseases of this kind, they arise as a result of the influence of a number of environmental factors.
For example, acquired hemolytic anemiamay be the result of mechanical damage to red blood cells or the effects of body antibodies. But most often this state develops under the influence of chemical elements, including some plant poisons and substances of animal origin.
Chemical toxins can affect protein orlipid components of the cell wall, thereby changing the structure of red blood cells and causing their premature destruction. In addition, some substances affect the enzyme composition of red bodies, thus, the reactions inside the cell, in particular, the synthesis and modification of hemoglobin, which, in fact, is responsible for the binding of oxygen and carbon dioxide, change.
As already mentioned, sometimes red blood cellsThey are destroyed as a result of exposure to their own antibodies - it is an autoimmune hemolytic anemia. During such illness, as a result of disruption of the immune system, the body produces antibodies that prematurely destroy their own and perfectly healthy blood cells. The most frequently acquired hemolytic anemia occurs against a background of another systemic disease.
Hemolytic anemia: symptoms and methods of diagnosis
Signs of such a disease are directly dependent onforms of the disease and the causes of its development. For example, hereditary forms of the disease manifest differently than those acquired. In most cases, congenital hemolytic anemia is characterized by periods of relative well-being and exacerbation of the disease, or hemolytic crisis. During such a crisis, a sick person, as a rule, feels characteristic signs of anemia - strong weakness, dizziness. In some forms, even an increase in temperature is observed.
Quite often hemolytic anemiaaccompanied by severe nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdomen. Erythrocytes are destroyed mainly in the spleen or liver. That is why in such patients the size of the spleen is significantly increased, sometimes the shape of the liver also changes. You can also note the excessive pallor of the skin. Practically all patients have jaundice, which can be both invisible and pronounced.
All these symptoms are very important fordiagnosis of the disease. In addition, the form, stage of the development of the disease and its cause are determined with the help of a careful laboratory analysis of the blood of a sick person.
Methods of treatment of hemolytic anemia
The choice of method directly depends on the form of anemia. For example, in hereditary diseases, treatment is reduced to maintaining the patient's health during a crisis.
In the event that anemia is caused by poisoning(the most commonly diagnosed with arsenic poisoning), the first thing to do is to completely remove toxin from the body as soon as possible. After this, the patient is prescribed treatment, which is aimed at restoring all organ systems.