Leptospirosis in humans: infection, symptoms, treatment
Leptospirosis is an infectiousa disease caused by leptospira - microorganisms that live everywhere in conditions of increased heat and excessive humidity. The most common is leptospirosis in people living in tropical countries. The carriers of the infection are animals: dogs, shrews, pigs, rats, cattle, etc. A person who develops leptospirosis does not pose a danger to other people.
In an organism of animals the infection gets through a forageor water. Infection of people happens through the skin in contact with contaminated animal secretions with water or moist soil. In addition, the infection can be entered by cutting down contaminated meat or consuming infected foods. Veterinarians and farm workers are most often affected by leptospirosis. The disease has a seasonal character, the highest number of cases of infection occurs in August. For human disease, leptospirosis is sufficient even for fleeting contact with contaminated water. If the skin has even the slightest damage, leptospira easily penetrate the body. They can also enter through the mucous membranes or conjunctiva of the eyes. Once in the body, the microbes begin to move through the lymphatic system. But in the lymph nodes of the inflammatory processes they do not cause, but through them they easily penetrate into organs and tissues, where they begin to multiply and accumulate. The incubation period lasts up to 2 weeks. Then leptospira affect the kidneys, liver, central nervous system, spleen, lungs. They release their toxins into the blood, causing severe intoxication, destroying red blood cells and disrupting the function of blood clotting.
First, the person rises sharply the temperature,there are signs of intoxication, such as headache, chills, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, constant thirst. Precursors of leptospirosis are not yet observed, although it is already possible to detect leptospira in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Similar symptoms persist for 4 to 9 days. So the first phase of the disease manifests itself - leptospiraemia. Then the pain in the muscles begins to appear. When palpation of the muscles of the hips, calves and lower back pain arises. There may be a hyperemia of the neck, face, chest. Some people develop an eruption, diarrhea, cough, and sensitivity disorder. In severe cases, as a result of toxemia of internal organs, there is a risk of developing meningitis, renal insufficiency, jaundice, hemorrhagic syndrome.
Leptospirosis in humans: diagnosis
To establish the diagnosis,bacteriological study. As already mentioned, detect leptospira in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. If the disease has passed into the toxemia phase of internal organs, microorganisms are found in the urine. Sometimes doctors can not immediately recognize leptospirosis and begin to suspect the patient of hepatitis, meningitis, nephritis and other pathologies.
Often the condition of patients requires exerciseresuscitation measures. The disease is very serious, in 10% of cases it ends with the death of the patient. The prognosis of recovery depends on the state of the organism and on the degree of pathogenesis of the leptospira. Treatment is carried out by taking antimicrobial drugs, such as drugs "Levomycetin", "Streptomycin", "Penicillin", "Erythromycin". To obtain a therapeutic effect, medications should be started after the infection has passed no more than four days.
Prevention of leptospirosis
The main preventive methods areveterinary and sanitary measures, consisting in the identification and treatment of sick animals. Limit the spread of leptospirae by leptospiroznoy vaccination of humans and animals. It is inadmissible to use water from dirty sources.