Historical essays on the Church of St. Gregory of Neocaesarea
The temple in honor of St. Gregory Neokesariysky,what is in Moscow on Polyanka has a very ancient history. Initially, it was cut from wood on the orders of Prince Vasily II, nicknamed Dark. According to legend, this was done as a token of gratitude to Heaven for getting rid of the Tatar captivity.
The legend of the construction of the temple
Today, from the wooden construction is nota trace remains. In its place rises a majestic stone temple. But even then, when this place was a wasteland, Prince Vasily, being in the Horde, swore to God that he would build a temple at the place from which he would see the Moscow Kremlin and consecrate it in honor of that saint whose memory will be celebrated on that day. He was destined to see the walls of the capital on November 30, 1445. According to the Orthodox calendar, this day is celebrated in memory of St. Gregory the Wonderworker from New Caesarea. This circumstance determined the fate of the future church, which is now known as the temple on the Polyanka of Gregory Neokesariysky.
The wooden church stood until the XVII century.In 1669-1679, a stone temple grows beside it. It happened at the initiative of the tsar's confessor, priest Andrei Savinov with the help of sovereign donations. Patriarch Nikon gave the church blessing for the construction, but Patriarch Joachim had to consecrate the finished church of Gregory Neokesariysky. The construction was led by the best architects, which they managed to find at that time. The history has preserved for descendants their names: Karp Guba and John the Grasshopper.
Architecture and decor of the church
Architecturally in the church of St. GregoryNeokesariysky reflected the standard for that time Moscow practice of church construction, which implies a five-domed and tent-type bell tower. The decoration of the temple was carried out with the help of tiles and floral ornament. Their authorship belongs to a man whom we also know by name. He was the famous potter Stepan Polubes.
To the design of the temple project in relation to whatnow they would call design, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich himself had a hand. It was he who ordered to paint the church of St. Gregory of Neokesariysky red under the brick, and cover the tent with whitewash and turquoise. As a result, the church turned out so beautiful that the people called it the Red Church. The iconostasis was painted by royal artists and icon painters, directed by the notorious Simon Ushakov. His authorship in this project belongs, for example, to the image of the Mother of God “Eleusa-Kykkskaya”. Of course, now he is not in the temple, but among the exhibits of the Tretyakov Gallery.
Church and royal family
In the same temple Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich got marriedwith Natalia Naryshkina in 1671. It also baptized the baby, who was destined to later become the emperor Peter the Great. Even today, a font in which the future sovereign-reformer was baptized is kept in the church of Gregory Neokesariysky. In principle, such attention to the church of the royal family was quite understandable, since its pastor was traditionally the clergyman of the king, and the temple itself had the status of a court.
Church in the War of 1812
During the events of 1812, the temple on PolyankaGregory Neokesariysky also distinguished himself. If in relation to other churches, the French allowed themselves acts of vandalism and burned many religious buildings on a par with ordinary houses, in this case they behaved unprecedentedly. Namely: in the church of Gregory of Neokesariysky soldiers were on duty, whose task was to protect the building from looting and from fire. The French soldiers carried water in buckets to protect it from damage caused by the fire that devastated the capital. On this occasion, Napoleon lamented, saying that if only it were possible, he would put this church on his palm and take him to Paris.
But what the French interventionists did not do, then withsuccess carried out the Russian communists. For 22 years after the 1917 revolution, services continued to be held in the church of Gregory of Neokesariya. But in 1939 it was closed and half destroyed. The last abbot was killed at the Butovo range.
Return to believers
The temple returned to the hands of believers only in 1994.The divine services were resumed at the same time. By 1996, the temple was restored sufficiently to be sanctified, which happened with the participation of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II. The relics rest in the church, according to official sources, the patron of the church itself - St. Gregory of Neokesariysky. They were handed over to the parish by Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh in 1998.
Currently, besides this shrine, in thisThe temple has particles of relics of many other saints, which is of certain value in the eyes of believers. In addition to the main throne in honor of the said father of the church, two more function in memory of St. Gregory the Theologian and in honor of the Bogolyubskaya icon of the Mother of God. The rector of the church at the moment is the resting bishop Jerome (Chernyshov).
Gregory Neokesariysky temple on Polyanka: the schedule and address
The easiest way to get to the temple from the metro station "Polyanka". The full address of the parish is as follows: Moscow, Bolshaya Polyanka Street, 29A.
As for the schedule, the church services are held on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays.
- 09:00 - matins, liturgy.
- 17:00 - all-night vigil.
- 09:30 - Liturgy.
A more detailed schedule of the church of St. Gregory Neokesariysky need to clarify the church, as it is updated monthly.