Nikitsky Monastery, Pereslavl-Zalessky: history, sights and interesting facts
The picturesque expanses of Nikitskaya Sloboda, which inPereslavl region, adorn the white stone walls of the ancient monastery, which has been on this land for several centuries. From afar resembles an ice palace. He saw a lot, his story is rich. Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl-Zalessky) daily receives now hundreds of pilgrims who come from all corners of our country to worship the shrine. On the shore of Pleshcheeva Lake, far from the bustle of worldly local inhabitants live obedience, work, restore the monastery destroyed in troubled times.
Nikitsky Monastery - Pereslavl-Zalessky. History of Education
Nikitsky Monastery is the oldest abodeRussian land, named in honor of the warrior-martyr Nikita. The date of foundation is the boundary of the 11th-12th centuries. A monastery was established under the administration of the Suzdal prince Boris Vladimirovich, who, after his death with his brother Gleb, became the first saint in Russia, was canonized by the face of the martyr martyr. It was during his reign that the Nikitsky Monastery was a stronghold, where the pagans were converted to the Christian faith.
The Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl-Zalessky) bearsThe name of the great martyr who lived in the IV century. In those days, Christianity spread throughout Europe, Nikita - a wealthy Gothic military commander, who refused paganism and followed the teachings of Christ. Before that, he had seen a young man with a cross in his sleep, and having awakened, he found on his chest an icon with the image of the Virgin with a baby, in whose hands was a cross. Having received baptism, Nikita began preaching the teaching of Christ, for which he was sentenced by the Gentiles to be burned. From the flame of the fire he was protected by an icon on his chest, which he wore under his clothes. Then they left him to be torn to pieces by a wild animal. At night, his body was kidnapped by a friend of Marian, who also buried him. Later, the Christians put the church on the site of the grave, which was named after the Great Martyr. Nikita's relics were able to heal, they became miraculous. Already later the monastery, built on this site, gained fame due to another martyr. He was also called Nikita (Stylites). This is what the monastery calls the name of these saints.
The heyday of the monastery at John the Terrible
In 1528, on the site of the old Nikitsky church, on the orders of Grand Duke Vasily III, a white stone Nikitsky Cathedral was built.
The real heyday of the monastery took place atthe reign of his son Vasily - Tsar Ivan the Terrible. He decided to prepare the monastery as a reserve oprichnaya fortress, in case his reliability as a fortress lost Alexandrovsky Sloboda. John repeatedly made a pilgrimage to the Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl-Zalessky).
In 1560, the king ordered the erection of a new buildingCathedral. It was a five-domed temple. The old construction of his father's time began to refer to the southern limit of Nikita Stylites. John the Terrible personally attended the consecration of the new cathedral. From himself, he presented a bronze chandelier as a gift, and his wife Anastasia presented the image of Nikita Stylites embroidered personally to her. This temple is still preserved today. At that time other buildings were erected on the territory of the monastery, but not all of them were preserved: the refectory church, the gate church of the Archangel Gabriel, towers and walls, which were reconstructed several times throughout history. Founded John and monastic residence, supplied the monastery with ancestral lands.
Participation of the royal family of the Romanovs
Nikitsky Monastery inPereslavl-Zalessky in 1609 adequately withstood the siege of the Poles. But in 1611 the Lithuanians, under the leadership of Pan Sapieha, after the siege, which lasted two weeks, completely burnt the monastery. Many defenders were killed, hegumen Michael, who survived the siege, wandered for a long time.
In the restoration of the monasterythe Romanov family took part. Alexey Mikhailovich, Mikhail Fedorovich, Patriarch Filaret presented valuable gifts to the monastery. Under Aleksei Mikhailovich, in 1645 the towers and walls were restored. At the same time, the Annunciation Church was built, which has survived until now. The church has a two-storey refectory and a tent belfry.
In 1702 the Chernigov chapel was erected, it is considered to be the last example of the ancient Pereslavl architecture.
In Catherine's time, many monasteries surviveddisastrous times. The construction of the monastery continued in the XVIII-XIX centuries. 1768 - the chapel of Nicholas the Wonderworker was attached to the refectory. In the XVIII century. also erected a chapel over the pillar of St. Nikita.
At the beginning of the XIX century. On the site of the old gate church they built a high bell tower.
Destructive XX century
In 1918The monastic property was nationalized by the Soviets. In 1923, the monastery was formally liquidated, and all valuable objects were handed over to the historical museum. All monks were expelled from the monastery. In buildings and temples in different periods of the Soviet government were all kinds of institutions: the Residential House for Scientists settled there, there was also a school, military units, and living rooms, and even a prison.
In 1933, the oldest iconostasis of the Nikitsky Cathedral was burnt in the most barbarous way. Many ancient architectural structures of historical value were simply destroyed over the years.
In the 1960's and 70's.it was decided to restore the Nikitsky Cathedral. But, either because of the negligent attitude of the builders, or because of the architect's mistakes, the central head of the temple collapsed in 1984. Disappeared and the centuries-old monastery well.
The structures that stood for many centuries were destroyedliterally in a few years. In 1977, the Annunciation Church was almost destroyed in the fire. For many years the church stood just abandoned, overgrown with weeds, the buildings were dilapidated. Many true Christians could not look without tears at the Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl-Zalessky). Trebes, prayers, commemorations, requiems, which the believers needed so much, ceased to be accessible to the people. Only in the hot 90-ies began the revival of the monastery.
Nikitsky Monastery, Pereslavl-Zalessky. Revival
Only in 1993.The Russian Orthodox Church was given the Nikitsky Monastery. Since this year, a large-scale restoration of the monastery began, we can say that it revived and began to revive again for the joy of all Christians. The monastery began to be completely restored, the work was carried out not only from the outside, but also inside, the painting was made by the best masters-icon painters. The newly appointed viceroy, Bishop Anatoly, supervised all the works.
In 1999, Archimandrite Dimitri was appointed governor, who continued work on improvement, revival of the monastery.
Glory to the Lord, miraculously preserved inthe monastery is the most important shrine - the relics of the Great Martyr Nikita Stylites and his beliefs. Thousands of pilgrims come to Pereslavl-Zalessky all year round. Nikitsky Monastery, whose address: Nikitskaya Sloboda, Zaprudnaya, 20, receives all the faithful, tel .: (48535) 2-20-08. He gives everyone the opportunity to kiss the shrines.
Architecture. Temples of the monastery
The monastery is on a hill.Surrounded by a wall of stone, which has towers, loopholes and embrasures. In the very monastery are three churches: the Great Martyr Nikita, the Holy Archangel Gabriel, the refectory church of the Annunciation of the Theotokos.
The monastery walls, towers, as well as the Nikitsky Cathedral belong to the XVI century and cause a special architectural interest.
Buildings within the walls of the monastery:
- fortress walls, towers (1560);
- the monastic corps (1876);
- the pillar-chapel of Nikita (1786);
- bell tower (1818);
- the tented belltower (1668);
- Church of the Annunciation, refectory (XVII century);
- Nikitsky Cathedral (1561).
Buildings behind the wall:
- Nikitskaya chapel;
- The Chernigov Chapel (1702).
If you decide to visit the Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl-Zalessky), schedule the services, pilgrimage excursions can be learned by contacting [email protected] or by calling the phone number listed above. You will be contacted by the novices and will help to resolve any issues.
Who is Nikita Stylites? Sinner?
Житие Никиты Столпника не сообщает нам о его infant and young years. And begins with a description of his fall. A mature man he serves as a tax collector, was an evil and greedy person. He was married to a patient, obedient woman. Particularly in the scripture are emphasized such traits of Nikita's character as avarice, cruelty, rancor. To the higher ranks was obsequious and flattering. So he lived for many years, enriching and robbing people. Indirect stories show that Nikita was not alien to the teaching, he read the Psalter, learned to read and write, and inserted into the speech circulation quotes from the Holy Scripture. There was within him that core of fervor, determination and some dissatisfaction with a full life. And his life turned over in an instant.
Once Nikita went into the new Transfiguration temple,there he was heard by the paremias - the chosen punching from the Old Testament, where prophesies and instructions were heard. Loud echoing in the head of Nikita's words-calls to cleanse his soul, to become kinder, to pardon his sins, to learn how to bring light and benefit to relatives. The Lord Himself wanted to reach out to him. All night the dream did not go to him. In the morning he told his wife to cook a dinner of meat, decided to invite high guests, free from the "delusion". Wife began to prepare and then her terrible cry was shocked Nikita. Running up to her, he saw what she was so scared. Instead of the broth, the blood boiled in the cauldron and the chunks of bodies floated in it. At that moment the sinner died in Nikita's consciousness, he realized that the Lord points him to the true path. He rushed out of the city.
For a long time on his knees he begged the hegumen to acceptin the Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl-Zalessky). He ordered that he should kneel at the gate to the monastery in front of every passing one to ask for forgiveness. And so did Nikita. After that, I decided to punish my flesh and stayed in the swamp for three days, where a cloud of insects was tortured to exhaustion. So they found him here monks, brought to a monastery and taken to the monastery.
Пребывал Никита в бдении в узкой келье, соблюдал strict fasting, but this seemed to him a little. Then, for the torture of his flesh, he dug his pillar (pit), put on himself iron chains (chains with crosses), and on his head - a stone cap. Day and night he was on a pillar, praying for his sins, and asking for other sinners. I was satisfied only with water and a piece of prosphora. His spirit was cleansed by prayer and repentance, he did not notice the pain of his flesh. The Lord accepted his repentance and sent him a gift of healing and insight.
The Healing of Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich
Everyone who came for hundreds of miles inPereslavl-Zalessky, Nikitsky Monastery visited to talk with Nikita Stylite. He eased the suffering of people, healed not only souls, but also bodies. The rumor about him also reached Chernigov, where he suffered from illnesses from an early age, Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich. With his neighbor boyar the prince gathered in a way to go to the pillar of Nikita, to talk with the wonderworker. The belief in healing of Prince Michael was very great, but he passed many tests on the way. They reached the walls of the monastery, stopped. Arriving at the monastery, the boyar found Nikita in chains and a stone cap, day and night praying, told about all his troubles. The great martyr listened to him, gave his staff and ordered the prince himself to come to him. When Michael took the staff from the boyar's hands, he immediately felt a great power in himself. Himself reached the pillar of Nikita, poured out his gratitude, and the monastery rewarded with generous gifts.
The death of the great martyr Nikita. Finding Believes
The news of miraculous healing and generous giftsThe prince quickly dispersed around the world. Nikita's relatives hurried to him, because they intended to get some of the wealth. For a long time the righteous told them about evil, about the sin of avarice, but they did not heed his words, but were only hardened in heart. They decided that the candles on Nikita were silver, so they shone in the sun.
The devotees thought of a black matter.On the night the intruders entered the monastery secretly, they crept up to the pillar and began to destroy the planks with which the pit was covered (from rains and bad weather). Nikita heard all this, guessed their intentions, but did not raise the noise and alarm. Silently he took the beatings, the death of the torturers, he surrendered himself to the will of God. So the mortal body of his doomed peace, and the soul ascended to heaven. The pilgrims also took off his chains and rushed past the gates. Already in the field they realized that it was not silver, but ordinary iron, and in desperation they tossed the chains in the Volga.
Discovering the body of the lifeless Nikita, brotherscarried him to the temple. The rumor about his death quickly spread, and many people were drawn to the coffin of the great martyr. Many at that time received healing before his grave.
The pious elder Simeon from the nextMonastery in the morning went to the bank of the river and saw a glowing column above the water, he called the archimandrite, the townspeople. Having reached the middle of the river, they discovered that, like a tree, Nikita's chains, chains and crosses floated on the surface. The Nikita monks gladly accepted this message, equiped the delegation and transferred the beliefs to their monastery, laid them at the coffin of Nikita Stylites.
Hundreds of pilgrims are drawn to the monastery to join the relics of Nikita, to receive healing, both souls and bodies.