Andrei Rublev: icons and murals
In Russia and beyond its borders, this name is well known -Andrei Rublev. Icons and frescos, created by the master about six centuries ago, are a real gem of Russian art and excite the aesthetic feelings of people so far.
Where and when Andrei Rublev was born is unknown.There are suggestions that this occurred approximately in 1360-70, in the Moscow principality, or in Veliky Novgorod. Information about when the master began to paint the faces of the Saints is contained in medieval historical documents. From the "Trinity Chronicle" found in Moscow, it is known that, as a black (monk), Rublev painted together Theophanes the Greek and Prokhor Gorodetsky the house church of Prince Vladimir Dmitrievich, son of Dmitry Donskoy.
The iconostasis of the cathedral of Vladimir
A few years later, the consonant of the same"Trinity Chronicle", co-authored with the famous icon painter Daniil Cherniy restored the Vladimir Uspensky Cathedral after the invasion of the Mongol-Tatars it was Andrei Rublev. Icons, which formed a single ensemble with frescoes, survived to the present day. True, in the magnificent era of Catherine II, the old iconostasis turned out to be inconsistent with the current fashion, and it was transferred from the cathedral to the village of Vasilyevskoye (now - the Ivanovo region). In the 20th century, these icons were restored, some of them entered the collection of the State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, another part was placed in the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow.
The central part of the Vladimir Iconostasis,which consists of icons written by Andrei Rublev, occupies Deesis ("prayer" in Greek). His main idea is God's judgment, which in the Orthodox world is called Terrible. More precisely, this is the idea of the ardent intercession of the saints before Christ for the whole human race. The image is imbued with a high spirit of love and mercy, nobility and moral beauty. In the center on the throne is Jesus with an open Gospel in his hands. The figure is inscribed in a scarlet diamond, this color symbolizes royalty and at the same time sacrifice. The rhombus is placed in a green-blue oval, embodying the union of the human with the Divine. This composition is in a red square, each corner of which recalls the four Evangelists - Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Soft colors harmoniously combined with slender lines.
Features in the image of the faces of the Saints
What new has brought in the image of the Savior AndrewRublev? Icons with the image of the Lord existed in Byzantine culture, but the amazing combination of majestic solemnity with extraordinary gentleness and tenderness makes the master's creations unsurpassed and unique. In the image of Rublevsky Christ, the views of Russian people about justice are clearly visible. A flicker of hope for justice - just and right - is full of faces of saints praying before Jesus. The image of the Theotokos is full of supplication and sorrow, and in the image of the Forerunner, inexplicable grief is read for the whole erring human race. The apostles John Chrysostom and Gregory the Great, Andrew the First-Called and John the Evangelist pray to the Savior without hesitation. As the worshiping angels, the archangels Gabriel and Michael are depicted here, their images are full of heavenly solemn beauty, speaking of the delightful world of heaven.
"Savior" Andrei Rublev
Among the iconographic images of the master there are several masterpieces, which are said to be the icon of the Savior.
Andrei Rublev occupied the image of Jesus Christ, andindeed the hand of the great painter created such works as "Savior Almighty", "Savior Not Made by Hands", "Savior of the Golden Vlas", "The Savior in the Force." Stressing the extraordinary spiritual softness of the Lord, Rublev guessed the main component of the Russian national ideal. It is not by chance that the color gamut shines with a gentle warm light. This went against the Byzantine tradition, in which the face of the Savior was painted with contrasting strokes, contrasting the green and brown colors of the background with strongly highlighted lines of facial features.
If we compare the face of Christ, created by Byzantinemaster Feofan the Greek, who was, according to some testimonies, Rublev's teacher, with images written by the student, we will see the obvious difference in the manner. Rublev puts the colors smoothly, preferring soft contrasts of light to the shadow. The lower layers of paint transparently shine through the upper, as if from inside the stream a quiet joyous light flows. That is why his iconography with confidence can be called luminiferous.
Or as it is called, the icon "Holy Trinity" by AndrewRublev is one of the greatest creations of the Russian Renaissance. It is based on the most famous biblical story about how the righteous Abraham was visited by the Triune God in the guise of three angels.
The creation of the icon "Trinity" by Andrei Rublev goes back to the history of the painting of the Trinity Cathedral. It was placed to the right of the Royal Gates in the lower, as it was supposed, row of the iconostasis.
The Mystery of the Holy Trinity
The composition of the icon is constructed in such a way that the figuresangels form a symbolic circle - a sign of eternity. They sit around the table with a bowl, in which lies the head of the sacrificial calf - the symbol of redemption. The central and left angels bless the cup.
Behind the angels we see Abraham's house, oak, underwhich he received his Guests, and the peak of Mount Moriah, on which Abraham ascended, to sacrifice the son of Isaac. There later, at the time of Solomon, the first temple was erected.
Traditionally it is believed that the figure of the average angeldepicts Jesus Christ, his right hand with folded fingers symbolizes unconditional obedience to the will of the Father. The angel on the left is the figure of the Father blessing the cup, which the Son is to drink to the redemption of the sins of all mankind. The right angel depicts the Holy Spirit, overshadowing the consent of the Father and the Son and comforting Him who will soon sacrifice himself. So the Holy Trinity was seen by Andrei Rublev. Its icons in general are always full of high symbolic sound, but in this one it is especially penetrating.
There are, however, researchers who, in a different wayinterpret the compositional distribution of the faces of the Holy Trinity. They say that God the Father sits in the middle, behind which is depicted the Tree of Life - a symbol of the source and completion. We read about this tree on the first pages of the Bible (it grows in the Garden of Eden) and on its last pages, when we see it in the New Jerusalem. The Left Angel is located on the background of the building, which can denote the Housebuilding of Christ - His Universal Church. The right Angels we see against the background of the mountain: it was on Mount Holy Ghost descended on the apostles after the Ascension of Christ.
A special role is played in the space of the icon color.In it, noble gold shines, tender ocher, green, azure blue and soft pink shades poured. Sliding color transitions are in harmony with the smooth slopes of the head, the movements of the hands of the quietly sitting Angels. In the faces of the three hypostases of the Godhead, there is unearthly sadness and at the same time peace.
The icons of Andrei Rublev are mysterious and many-valued.The photos, on which there are images of the Deity, give us an inconceivable feeling of confidence that the meaning of the universe and every human life is in loving and reliable hands.