The Arab Caliphate
The Arab caliphate was theocratica Muslim state that arose as a result of the conquest of Muslims led by the Caliph in the 7th-9th centuries. Its original core was created in the form of a community by the Prophet Muhammad in Western Arabia in the Hijaz in the 7th century. The result of numerous Muslim conquests was the creation of a huge state, which included the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, and Iraq. It included a large part of Transcaucasia and Central Asia. It also included the lands of Egypt, North Africa, Syria and Palestine, covering a large part of the Iberian Peninsula and one of the four provinces of Pakistan - the land of Sindh. So vast was the state of the Arab Caliphate. The history of its creation is directly related to the influence of the caliphs (heirs or vicegerents).
In the time of the Arab caliphatethe flourishing of Islamic culture and science, it was the Golden Age of Islam. The date of its foundation is 632. Consider the era of the first four Caliphs, who walked "the right way." The Arab Caliphate included the following rulers: Abu Bakr (his reign lasted from 632 to 634), Umar (634-644), Usman, who ruled the following 12 years (to 656), Ali (656 to 661) and Further domination of the Umayyad dynasty, which existed from 661 to 750.
This empire, formed in less than 100 years,its size exceeded the Roman one. After the death of Muhammad there were preconditions for its disintegration and the collapse of those successes of Islam that were obtained thanks to him. After his death, almost all of Arabia moved away from this belief, exceptions were Mecca, Medina and Taif.
The prophet did not leave behind the heir anda dispute arose over the successor between the Medinites and the Meccans. The Caliph after the discussions put forward Abu Bakr, who managed to return to the Arab Caliphate and Islam, and disunited Arabia. After suppressing the Arab uprising, Bakr continued Muhammad's policy and led the war against the Iranian and Byzantine possessions. At the end of his life he commanded Arabia, Babylonia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Western Iran, Bark, Egypt and Tripoli.
Usman conquered Cyprus, East Iran, the Carthaginian region, expanding the Arab caliphate. Due to the internecine strife of the Arabs that arose in connection with the murder of Usman, some border areas were eliminated.
Ali was killed during the "palace coup", and the Umayyads came to power. With them in a state that has an elected government, hereditary monarchy was entrenched.
The conquests of the first caliphs were successful because ofweakness of the opponents, since no one opposed the Arabs. The local population, because of hatred of the Greeks, often called for and helped the Arabs. The Greeks never allowed them to conquer Asia Minor, and under Constantinople the Arabs suffered defeat.
In the conquered lands, where the Arabiccaliphate, history characterizes the style of government under Umar as a militant church. Under Usman, the Arabs were allowed to own the conquered lands, which attracted to the landlord activity. Religious character has changed with the arrival of the Umayyads. From the church-religious community, led by the spiritual head, there was a transformation into a secular-political power.
The next dynasty of Abbasids is celebrated asdespotic, bloody and accompanied by cruel cruelty. The people became a witness of hypocrisy, and insidiousness was displayed in secret, in the form of reprisals against restless citizens. This dynasty was characterized by insanity, with the introduction of a system of torture. Despite this, the ruling circles were considered brilliant politicians, under which finances were brilliantly performed.
The culture of the Arab caliphate and its development in thisthe period was strongly encouraged, science and medicine developed. This was promoted by a talented family of viziers, which ruled until 803, and which Harun overthrew. Family members for 50 years maintained a balance between Arabs and Persians, created a political fortress and restored Sassanian life.
Under the Abbasids, the culture of the Arab Caliphate wasdeveloped due to peaceful relations with neighbors, barter trade. Luxury goods, silk fabrics, weapons, jewelry, embroideries on leather and canvas, carpets, carved works on bones were produced. In those years, mosaic, chasing, engraving, faience and glassware became widespread. Persia influenced Arabic poetry, the emergence of correct historiography and scientific Arabic philology. In those years, Arabic grammar was created, and literature was collected.