Human Genetics and Health
Genetics as a science was born in the beginning of the twentiethcentury, and in the 50 years experienced an intensive rise. Human genetics is a division in science that studies the structure of human populations, features of heredity and hereditary diseases. This science studies a person at the molecular, cellular, biogeochemical, organismic, population and biochorological levels.
Human genetics is closely related to medicine andanthropology. Medical genetics deals with the study of the regularity of the transmission of hereditary diseases from generation to generation, the role of heredity in various human pathologies, that is, hereditary pathologies (defects, diseases, deformities, etc.), as well as the development of methods for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of pathologies, including number of diseases with hereditary predisposition. Its task is to timely identify sick children, develop recommendations and prescriptions for their treatment and, what is very important, to discover the carrier of these diseases (one of the parents). Anthropogenetics studies the variability and heredity of normal features of the human body.
Despite the fact that human geneticsa relatively young trend in science, recent research has gradually begun to reveal the veil of the mystery of the human gene pool. Genetics and human health are interconnected, and science already knows severalthousands of diseases, genetically proper, 100% dependent on the genotype of the individual. The most terrible of them are galactosemia, acid fibrosis pancreas (cystic fibrosis), phenylketonuria, hypercholesterolemia, alkaponuria, Down syndrome,Shereshevsky-Turner, Kleinfelter, as well as various forms of cretinism and hemoglobinopathy. In addition, there are diseases that depend on both the environment and the genotype: diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid and some cancer, ischemic disease, peptic ulcer diseases, schizophrenia and some other mental disorders. And then it is especially important for physicians to understand how it is possible to apply the deciphered data in the treatment, and most importantly - in the prevention, of numerous hereditary diseases.
Genetics of a person's sex is that section of genetics,which deals with the study of the role of the mechanism of heredity, and also, hereditary variability in the course of sex determination. Successes in this field made it possible to prevent and timely treatment of hereditary diseases.
Modern medicine and medical geneticsalways focus on the prevention of hereditary diseases. Prenatal (prenatal) diagnosis is a diagnostic study of the fetus during pregnancy to identify its genetic defects. In order to assess the intrauterine development of the fetus, various methods of prenatal diagnosis are used: ultrasound screening, biochemical blood tests, hemostasiogram, cardiotocography, etc.
A leading place among methods that allowbirth diagnosis of a child's disease, takes amniocentesis. The method consists in obtaining the amniotic fluid and fetal cells with a puncture (under the supervision of ultrasound) of the fetal bladder. It allows you to diagnose some diseases and chromosomal diseases, based on - gene mutations. Such diagnostics are recommended for absolutely all pregnant women.
Progress in science and technology has exposed modern peopleaboutrisk of adversevariability than it was during the previous period of the formation and development of human civilization. Chemical, physical and, quite possible, biological mutagens can in the future carry a very serious threat to the genetic structure of the population.
Human genetics clearly shows that they are absoluteall races, from a biological point of view, are equivalent and have equal opportunities for their development, determined by socio-historical conditions, rather than genetic ones.