Harun al-Rashid: goals, achievements, opponents. The Board of Harun al-Rashid
The second half of the 8th century AD was commemoratedthe weakening of central power, and the remote regions of the Caliphate received a new impetus to development. On the background of general changes, Baghdad was especially prominent. Quite quickly it turned into a cultural and political capital of a huge Muslim empire. In a rapidly developing city, a trader, an architect, a soldier - everyone could find a job. And especially lucky people could make a successful career and become the approximate caliph, whose name was Harun al-Rashid.
Fairy tales and reality
Arabian tales are presented to us by the ruler of Baghdadas a just and wise patron of architects and scientists, patron and creator. The image of Harun-ar-Rashid was so impressive that later his name became a household name, denoting a generous person endowed with power, good and fair. But reality, as always, turned out to be much more prosaic than fairy tales.
The Childhood of the Caliph
In the ancient city of Rey, which is nearfrom Tehran, in 766 the grandson of the great Al-Mansur, the founder of the Abbasid dynasty, who for a long time managed a huge caliphate was born. Their possessions stretched from the borders of India and China to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Grandfather Harun al-Rashid founded and Baghdad. The latter at the time of the birth of the future caliph became a rich and flourishing city, the main decoration of which was the palace of the caliph. The mother of the future khan was the Yemeni slave named Al-Khayzuran, whom the Caliph made his concubine, and later married her.
Harun al-Rashid spent his childhood in bliss andLuxury, surrounded by friends, relatives and wise mentors. Despite the surrounding wealth, he grew strong and enduring - he perfectly shot with a bow, wielded a sword, was an excellent rider. From early childhood his mentors were representatives of the noble family Barmakids, and young Jafar ar Barmakid for many years was his best friend.
The first military campaigns
At the request of Harun's mother, in a youngat the age of sixteen the son of the Caliph took part in a military campaign against Byzantium. It is clear that he commanded the troops purely nominally, all military operations were conducted by more experienced commanders. Despite the many slander that whispered in his father's ear, the opponents of Harun al-Rashid, were disgraced. The young heir showed great courage and ingenuity in the battles, and he could be entrusted with more complex cases.
After returning from the campaigns, Harun al-Rashidinstructed to rule in Iftrica (now this land is in the territory of modern Tunisia), Armenia, Azerbaijan and Syria. In the list of candidates for the caliphate, he was second only to his half-brother Musa.
Short rule of al-Hadi
After the death of Caliph Musa took the throne under the nameal Hadi. His brother, he threw in prison and forced to swear that never Harun al-Rashid will not claim the throne and will faithfully serve his brother-ruler.
But Harun's mother and his friend Jafar did not give such an oath, Not long Ali al-Hadi ruled in his caliphate. In 786, he suddenly died, and Harun took his place.
The objectives of Harun al-Rashid
The struggle for the throne in any empire is a long-termand a bloody confrontation. Entering the throne, the young Harun first of all continued to play a nominal role, and the country was governed by his teachers and the powerful Barmakids. In his judgments the young Caliph was guided by the teachings of his teacher Yahya ibn Khalid, he devoted much time to the mother who elevated him to the throne.
After the death of his mother Harun al-Rashid graduallygets rid of the influence of the powerful clan of the Barmakids and takes the reins of government into their own hands. The main opponents of Harun al-Rashid are now his former friends and mentors. On January 29, 803, Jafar, the longtime and most devoted friend of the Caliph, perishes by the hands of his vizier. Was the denunciation of the anonymous ill-wishers, or the whole suspicion of the Caliph - the truth, we will never know. The teachers of the caliph were also removed from the leadership, and his mentor Yahya ibn Khalif was imprisoned for a long time.
The policy of the Caliph
The rule of Harun al-Rashid can be calledthe golden age of the caliphate. Unconditional military superiority discouraged the poor neighbors in raiding on the outskirts of the empire. All attempts to rekindle the flame of the war were mercilessly suppressed. In this relatively peaceful time, trade is booming. Perhaps it was the Arab merchants who traded with the whole oikumene, spread the news of the new caliph as a generous and wise ruler.
Несмотря на свою славу грозного повелителя и severe military leader, Harun al-Rashid was sensitive to the voice of scientists and gracious to the poor. Throughout his reign, he prayed daily. For theologians and poets, doors were always opened, Harun often listened to them, allowed them to interpret the Qur'an, sing laudatory songs in their own address.
Successes in science and construction
Despite the general board, in the AbyssiCaliphate cities had relative autonomy. The Caliph followed the progress of scholars from various lands of his caliphate, and invited the most talented researchers and architects. Thanks to this approach, what achievements Harun al-Rashid was famous for was soon recognized by the entire Arab world. Bridges and mosques were built in the caliphate, dams and dams were built to irrigate the dry, endless lands of the caliphate.
Интересно, что, по словам одного историка, Харун Al-Rashid seriously considered projects to connect the Red Sea with the waters of Romeysky (Mediterranean). For the implementation of this undertaking, the Caliph had both the means and the possibilities. This project was rejected for security reasons of the state - the commanders of the Caliph seriously feared the invasion of Byzantine ships and their breakthrough to the shores of Hejaz. More than a thousand years later, they returned to this idea, having built the Suez Canal on the site of an ancient project.
Soon the young caliph got married.Zubeidd ibn Jafar, the granddaughter of Caliph al Mansur, became his chosen one. Many of the achievements of Harun Al-Rashid should rightfully be attributed to this particular woman. He made an enormous contribution to the improvement of cities, with her filing the lights shone in the streets of Baghdad at night, she was one of the first wives to do charity work. She gave her husband and lord the son of Abu Abdullah Allah, who at one time became the heir to his father's empire.
Caliph and religion
Kindness and piety of the ruler in a strange waycombined with its intransigence to the Gentiles. At the dawn of his reign, he declared an amnesty, having pardoned hundreds of robbers and thieves, but leaving people in prison who interpreted the Quran to be different from the generally accepted one. In the Christian world, such people would be called heretics. The so-called Zindiki were supposed to publicly abandon the wrong doctrine and pay a certain fee for their release.
The last days of the Caliph
Aggressive politics of Islam at the endthe ends shook the serene reign of the Abbadinsky Caliphate. Various movements of the Muslim faith found their supporters on the outskirts of a large empire. Revolts broke out in Egypt, Tunisia and Central Asia. Numerous wars devastated the treasury and demanded the immediate attention of the ruler. The Caliph often had to single-handedly lead military campaigns. During Harun’s return from one such campaign, in the year 809, death overtook him. They say that the last words of the Caliph were: "Immortal, forgive the mortal."