History of IGIL: date of foundation, form of government
Islamic terrorist group LIHMany experts consider the main threat to the world at the present time. This organization emerged as an isolated al-Qaida cell, but then became a completely independent force. Now it is the largest terrorist organization in the world. The history of ISIS will be the subject of our study.
Prehistory of the IGIL
First, let's find out what causes the emergence of ISIS, what is the background to its formation. To do this, we will have to look into the 90s of the last century.
At the beginning of the grouping, which latertransformed into ISIS, stood Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Born in 1966, in his youth, he fought against the Soviet army in Afghanistan. After returning to Jordan, he was engaged in activities against the regime in the country, for which, since 1992, he was imprisoned for seven years.
In 1999, immediately after his release,Al-Zakravi created an Islamist organization of the Salafi sense, which adopted the name "Monotheism and Jihad." The original purpose of this group was to overthrow the royal dynasty in Jordan, which, according to al-Zakravi, pursued an anti-Islamic policy. It was this organization that formed the foundation on the basis of which the “state” of ISIL was formed in the future.
After the start of the American operation in Iraq in 2001year, representatives of the organization "Monotheism and Jihad" launched an active activity in the country. Al-Zarqawi is believed to have become at this time one of the organizers and another large group, Ansar al-Islam. It operated mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sunni regions of Iraq. Its formal leader is Farazh Ahmad Najmuddin, who is in a Norwegian prison and directs Ansar al-Islam from there. From 2003 to 2008, the group adopted the name "Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna", but then returned to its previous name. After the intervention of the allied forces in Iraq in 2003, many of its fighters joined the Monotheism and Jihad organization. Currently, Ansar al-Islam is one of the main allies of ISIS.
Union with al-Qaeda
It was after the overthrow of Iraq’s leader SaddamHussein in 2003, the organization “Monotheism and Jihad” firmly established itself in this country. She conducted a series of high-profile terrorist attacks, public punishment with the cutting off of heads became the proprietary chip. Later this bloody tradition, the purpose of which was to intimidate, was adopted by the heir to the organization of “Monotheism and Jihad” - the ISIS group. “Monotheism and Jihad” became the main anti-government force in Iraq, the purpose of which was to overthrow the transitional government, destroy supporters of Shiism and form an Islamic state.
In 2004, al-Zarqawi took the oath of allegiancethe leader of the world's largest at the time Islamic extremist organization Al-Qaida, Osama bin Laden. Since that time, the group "Monotheism and Jihad" became known as "al-Qaeda in Iraq." The history of ISIS from this time has made a new round.
Increasingly, the group led by az-ZarqawiI began to apply terrorist methods not to the American military, but to the citizens of Iraq - mainly to Shiites. This caused a decline in the popularity of Al-Qaida in Iraq among the local population. In order to return the ratings and consolidate the forces of resistance to the coalition forces, in 2006, al-Zarqawi organized a “Consultative Assembly of the Mujahideen,” which included, in addition to Al-Qaida, another 7 major Sunni Islamist groups.
But in June 2006, al-Zarqawi was killed as a result of the bombing of American aircraft. The new leader of the organization was Abu Ayyub al-Masri.
Islamic state in Iraq
After eliminating az-Zarqawi, the history of ISIS changed its direction again. This time there has been a tendency to break with al-Qaeda.
In October 2006, the “Consultative AssemblyThe Mujahideen "proclaimed the creation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), and did it on their own, without waiting for consent from the leadership of Al-Qaeda. But before the final break with this terrorist organization was still far away.
The capital of this "state" was proclaimedIraqi city of Baquba. His first emir was Abu Umar al-Baghdadi, about the past of which it is known only that he is a citizen of Iraq and previously headed the "Consultative Assembly of the Mujahideen." In 2010, he was killed in Tikrit after a missile strike by US-Iraqi forces. In the same year, Al-Qaeda’s leader in Iraq, Abu Ayyub al-Masri, who was also considered one of the leaders of the ISI, also died.
Iraqi resident Abu Bakr has become a new emir of the IGUAl-Baghdadi, previously detained in a US concentration camp on suspicion of extremism. The leader of al-Qaida in Iraq is his compatriot Abu Suleiman an-Nasir. At the same time, he was appointed military adviser at the Institute for State Statistics, and in 2014 he became head of the military council of the Islamic State.
The emergence of ISIL as an organization like usWe see that it dates back to the first decade of the 21st century, but this name itself appeared only in April 2013, when the ISI extended its activities to Syria, that is, to the countries of the Levant. Therefore, ISIL and stands for - the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The name of this organization in Arabic transliteration is DAISH. ISIS almost immediately, as it began active operations in Syria, began to attract more and more fighters from other Islamist groups. In addition, militants from the EU, the USA, Russia and a number of other countries began to flock to this organization.
Syria embraces civil warbetween the government troops of President Assad and a number of anti-government groups of various kinds. Therefore, the Syrian ISIL without effort was able to take control of large areas of the country. This organization was particularly successful in 2013-2014. The capital was moved from Baakuba to the Syrian city of Ar-Raqqah.
В это же время территория ИГИЛа достигла most expanded in Iraq. The group put control over virtually the entire province of Anbar, as well as the important cities of Tikrit and Mosul during the uprising against the Shiite government of Iraq.
Final departure from al-Qaida
Initially, the "state" ISIS triedact in alliance with other rebel forces in Syria against the Assad regime, but in January 2014 entered into open armed conflict with the main opposition force, the Free Syrian Army.
In the meantime, there was a final break of ISIS.with al-qaeda. The leadership of the latter demanded that the ISIS withdraw the militants from Syria and return to Iraq. The only representative of al-Qaida in Syria was to act only grouping "Front en-Nusra." It was she who officially represented the international terrorist organization in the country. ISIS refused to comply with Al-Qaida’s leadership requirements. As a result, in February 2014, Al-Qaida stated that it had no relation to ISIL, and therefore could not control this organization or be responsible for its actions.
Shortly thereafter, fighting broke out between the fighters of DAISH and "Al-Nusra Front".
History of ISIS acquires a completely different scale.after the proclamation of the caliphate. This happened at the end of June 2014. Thus, the organization began to lay claim not only to primacy in the region, but to supremacy in the entire Islamic world, with the prospect of establishing a world caliphate. After that, it became simply called the "Islamic State" (IG) without specifying a specific region. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi took the title of Caliph.
Caliphate announcement, on the one handcontributed to further strengthening the authority of the IG in the eyes of many Muslim radicals, which led to an increase in the flow of militants willing to join the group. But on the other hand, this caused an increase in even greater confrontation with other Islamist organizations that did not want to put up with the IG primacy.
Allied operation against IS
In the meantime, the international community has become increasingly aware of the danger posed by the Islamic State, because the territory of ISIL has constantly continued to increase.
From mid-2014, the United States began to providedirect military assistance to the Iraqi government to combat IS. A little later, Turkey, Australia, France, and Germany intervened in the conflict. They coordinated the bombing of the location of the militants of the IG throughout 2014-2015, both in Iraq and in the Syrian state.
Starting in September 2015 upon requestthe government of Syria in the fight against the IG began to take part Russia. Her air force also began to strike at the location of the extremist group. True, it was not possible to reach an agreement on coordinating actions between Russia and the coalition of Western countries, due to a number of contradictions.
Military assistance of international contingentcontributed to the fact that the territory of ISIL in Iraq was significantly reduced. The offensive of militants in Syria was also suspended, it was possible to discourage a number of key positions from them. IG head Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was seriously injured.
But to talk about the victory of the coalition over the Islamic state is still too early.
The main arena of action of the Islamic stateis the territory of Iraq and Syria. But the organization extended its influence to other countries. ISIS directly controls certain territories in Libya and Lebanon. In addition, the group has recently begun to be active in Afghanistan, recruiting former Taliban supporters. The leaders of the Nigerian Islamist terrorist group "Boko Haram" took the oath of allegiance to the caliph of the Islamic state, and the territories that control this organization became known as the IG province. In addition, the IG has its branches in Egypt, the Philippines, Yemen and in many other public entities.
The leaders of the Islamic state claim to control all the territories that at one time were part of the Arab Caliphate and the Ottoman Empire, whose heirs consider themselves to be.
Organizational structure of the Islamic State
Islamic state in the form of government cancalled theocratic monarchy. Caliph is the head of state. The body that has a deliberative function is called Shura. The counterparts of the ministries are the Intelligence Council, military and legal council, the health service, etc. The organization consists of many cells in many countries of the world that have a fairly strong autonomy in management.
The territory for which the IG claims is divided into 37 wilayats (administrative units).
The Islamic State is relativelyyoung terrorist organization that spreads around the Earth at a very high speed. It claims the supremacy not only in the Middle East region, but throughout the Muslim world. An increasing number of radical people are joining its ranks. The methods of conducting the struggle of the IG extremely cruel.
Only the concerted and timely actions of the international community can stop further promotion of this organization.