The ruler of the caliphate is the protector and patron
The Caliph is the ruler of the caliphate and patron,defender of Muslims. The status of the Caliph has been repeatedly reviewed throughout history, and the wars and strife that have been waged for the title have often led to a split not only of the caliphate, but of the entire Muslim community.
Ruler of the Arab Caliphate
A huge Muslim state, which went down in history under the name of the Arab Caliphate, began with a small religious community formed around the preacher Muhammad.
In the first thirty years after the death of the prophet,created by the state was governed by the successors of Muhammad - the four righteous caliphs. The rulers managed to expand the territory of the state, which at the same time began to occupy the territory from Algeria to the Central Asian river of the Amu Darya and from the North Caucasus coast of the Caspian Sea to the southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula.
Meaning of title
From Arabic, the word caliph is translated asa deputy or deputy, but it is more correct to translate it as a primate, because it means that the rulers of the caliphate replace Muhammad, who ascended, according to Muslims, to the sky alive, leaving many problems in his inheritance.
Immediately after the death of the prophet, most of the inhabitantsArabia refused to confess the Muslim faith. Only three cities remained faithful to their newly adopted religion: Mecca, Medina and Al-Ta'if. This state of affairs allowed the first elected caliph to begin an active conquest activity, which led to the creation of a great state.
For several decades, the titlegot elected leaders, who, nevertheless, could not abandon him. At the same time, the killing of a community leader was viewed as a religious crime.
The Umayyad Dynasty
The assassination of Ali ibn Abu Talib, the last righteous Caliph, was the beginning of the first dynasty of the caliphate, which in the historical literature received the name of the Umayyad dynasty.
The first ruler of the Umayyad caliphate was MuaviaThe first, who ruled for nineteen years and significantly expanded his possessions. It was he who significantly changed the procedure for awarding the title, which after his death became hereditary.
However, the next ruler of the caliphate is the sonMuavia - could not keep the situation in the state under control, and as a result, the country began to slowly disintegrate. First, the bordered remote territories fell away. However, already with the third Caliph Abd al-Malika, a new expansion of the possessions of Islamic leaders begins.
The last representatives of the Umayyad dynastyfought immediately on several fronts, made regular raids on the territory of European rulers. However, the conquests in Europe came against the serious resistance of the Byzantine emperor and the king of francs Carl Martell.
The capital of the caliphate
The capital, founded by the rulers of the Abbasid dynasty, was called Baghdad. It was a new city built on the banks of the Tigris River. In Arabic, the name means "God's gift."
The order for the construction of the new city was given by Caliph Abu al-Mansour, who wanted to move the capital closer to the geographical center and to the lands in which his supporters lived.
This was a solution that had far-reachingconsequences - for many centuries Baghdad became the capital not only of the Abbasid caliphate, but of the entire Arab world. The city actively developed handicrafts and trade with other countries, including as far as India.
And although after the fall of the Abbasid Empire, the citylost its former importance as a political center, it still continued to play an important role in the cultural life of the entire Islamic civilization, remaining the center of scholarship and Muslim theology. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, thirty libraries operated in the city, in which texts were collected written both in the capital and in other major scientific centers throughout the Middle East. The very nature of the authority of the Caliph determines also what the goals set by the rulers of the Arab Caliphate, who constantly sought to expand the area of spreading Islam, the circulation of all new people to their religion. In addition, the caliphs adopted religious decrees.
Loss of power
In the tenth century, the political power of the caliphsbegins to fade away, they control all smaller territories, and independent states have been created on the outlying suburbs. while in their own state the rulers of the caliphate became dependent on the guard, created in the ninth century and formed of Turkic mercenaries.
Over time, the rulers of the caliphate lost controlon Persia, Syria and Egypt, the lands in the north of Mesopotamia. However, despite the loss of power, military and economic influence, the Baghdad caliphs continued to enjoy the deserved religious authority for a long time.
But the Caliphs did not want to just put up with the losspower and privileges that it gives. Feeling the early fall, the rulers began to strengthen their power and chose for this extremely cruel methods, which resulted in massive persecution of dissenters. The support of the new policy of the caliphate was the orthodox Islamic clergy. However, new measures failed to delay the decline of the state.