The third Shiite imam Hussein: biography
One of the two main trends of modernIslam is Shiism. Imam Hussein was one of the people with whom the origin of this religious trend is connected. His life story can be quite interesting both to the common man in the street, and to people who are connected with scientific activity. Let's find out what Hussein ibn Ali brought to our world.
The full name of the future imam is Hussein ibn Ali ibnAbu Talib. He came from the Hashemite branch of the Arab tribe of the Quraysh, founded by his great-great-grandfather Hashim ibn Abd Manaf. To the same branch belonged the founder of Islam, the prophet Mohammed, who was simultaneously Hussein's grandfather (by his mother) and his uncle (by his father). The main city of the Quraish tribe was Mecca.
The parents of the third Shiite imam were Ali ibnAbu Talib, who was the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, and the daughter of the last Fatima. Their descendants are called Alids and Fatimids. In addition to Hussein, they had the eldest son - Hasan.
Thus, Hussein ibn Ali belonged to the most noble, in Muslim terms, clan, being a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
Birth and youth
Hussein was born in the fourth year of the Hijra (632).) during the stay of the family of Muhammad and his supporters in Medina after the flight from Mecca. According to legend, the Prophet himself gave him a name, foretold a great future and death at the hands of representatives of the genus Umayyad. About the early years of the youngest son of Ali ibn Abu Talib almost nothing is known, since at this time he was in the shadow of his father and elder brother.
On the historical stage, the future Imam Hussein comes out only after the death of brother Hassan and the Caliph of Mu'awiyah.
The emergence of Shiism
Now let's take a closer look at how the Shiite current of Islam arose, because this issue is closely related to the life and activities of Hussein ibn Ali.
After the death of the Prophet, the head of Muslims becameelected at a meeting of elders. He wore the title of Caliph and was endowed with the fullness of religious and secular power. The first caliph became one of the close assistants of Mohammed Abu Bakr. Later, the Shiites claimed that he usurped power by circumventing the legitimate aspirant - Ali ibn Abu Talib.
After the short reign of Abu Bakr, there were two morecaliph, traditionally called righteous, until in 661 the ruler of the entire Islamic world was finally elected Ali ibn Abu Talib, cousin and brother-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad himself, father of the future Imam Hussein.
But the authority of the new Caliph refused to recognizethe ruler of Syria, Muawiya of the Umayyad family, who was Ali's distant relative. They began to conduct military operations among themselves, which, however, did not reveal the winner. But in the beginning of 661 Caliph Ali was killed by conspirators. His new son Hassan was elected the new ruler. Realizing that he could not cope with the experienced Muawiya, he transferred that authority, with the proviso that after the death of the former Syrian governor, she would return to Hassan or his descendants again.
However, already in 669 Khasan died in Medina, whereafter the murder of his father moved with his brother Hussein. It is assumed that death came from poisoning. The Shiites see the culprits poisoning Muawiya, who did not want the power to slip away from his kind.
In the meantime, more and more people showeddissatisfaction with the policy of Mu'awiya, grouping around the second son of Ali-Hussein, whom they considered to be the true governor of Allah on Earth. These people began to call themselves Shiites, which is translated from Arabic as "followers". That is, at first Shiism was more a political trend in the Caliphate, but over the years it increasingly took on a religious color.
The religious gap between the Sunnis, the supporters of the Caliph, and the Shiites grew more and more.
Prerequisites for confrontation
As already mentioned above, until the death of the Caliph of Mu'awiyah,which happened in 680, Hussein played a not very active role in the political life of the Caliphate. But after this event, he fairly stated his claims to the supreme authority, as was previously agreed between Mu'awiya and Hassan. This turn of events, of course, did not suit the son of Mu'awiyah Yazid, who had already taken the title of Caliph.
Hussein's supporters, the Shiites, declared him an imam. They claimed that their leader was the third Shiite imam, the first two considering Ali ibn Abu Talib and Hassan.
Thus, the intensity of passions between the two parties grew, threatening to pour into an armed confrontation.
The beginning of the uprising
And the uprising broke out.The rebellion began in the city of Kufa, which was located near Baghdad. The rioters believed that Imam Hussein was only worthy to lead them. They suggested that he become the leader of the uprising. Hussein agreed to take on the role of leader.
In order to reconnoitre the situation, Imam Husseinsent to Kufa his own relative, who was called Muslim ibn Akil, and himself spoke with supporters from Medina behind him. Upon arrival at the site of the uprising, the representative took an oath on behalf of Hussein from 18,000 inhabitants of the city, which he informed his master.
But the administration of the Caliphate also did not sit idly byarms. To suppress the uprising in Kufa, Yazid appointed a new governor. He immediately began to apply the most stringent measures, as a result, almost all the supporters of Hussein fled the city. Before Muslim was captured and executed, he managed to send a letter to the Imam, telling about the changed circumstances for the worse.
The Battle of Karbala
Despite this, Hussein decided to continue the campaign.He, along with his supporters, approached the town on the outskirts of Baghdad called Karbala. Imam Hussein together with the detachment met there numerous troops of the Caliph Yazid under the command of Umar ibn Sad.
Of course, an imam with a relatively small grouphis supporters could not resist a whole army. Therefore, he went to negotiations, offering the command of the enemy's army to let him go with the detachment. Umar ibn Sad was ready to listen to Hussein's representatives, but other commanders-Shir and Ibn Ziyad-persuaded him to set such conditions upon which the imam simply could not agree.
The grandson of the Prophet decided to take an unequal battle.Over a small detachment of rebels fluttering a red flag of Imam Hussein. The battle was short-lived, as the forces were unequal, but fierce. The troops of Caliph Yazid triumphed a complete victory over the rebels.
Death of imam
Almost all supporters of Hussein, in quantityseventy-two people were killed in this battle or captured, and then subjected to a painful execution. Some were imprisoned. Among the dead was the imam himself.
His severed head was sent immediately to the governor of Kufa, and then to Damascus, the capital of the Caliphate, so that Yazid could fully enjoy the sign of victory over Ali's descent.
However, it is the death of Imam Husseininfluenced the process of the future decay of the Caliphate, and even more than if he had survived. The treacherous murder of the grandson of the Prophet and the blasphemous mockery of his remains caused a whole wave of discontent throughout the Islamic world. Shiites finally separated themselves from the supporters of the Caliph - Sunni.
In 684, the uprising under the banner of revenge forThe martyrdom of Hussein ibn Ali erupted in the holy city of Muslims - Mecca. He was headed by Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr. For eight years, he managed to retain power in the hometown of the Prophet. In the end, the caliph was able to regain control of Mecca. But this was only the first uprising of the mutiny riots that shook the Caliphate and took revenge for the murder of Hussein.
The murder of the third Imam was one of the mostlandmark events in the Shiite doctrine, which further rallied the Shiites in the fight against the Caliphate. Of course, the power of the caliphs lasted more than one century. But, by killing the heir of the prophet Muhammad, the Caliphate inflicted a mortal wound to himself, which in the future led to its disintegration. Subsequently, on the territory of a once powerful powerful state, the Shiite states of Idrisids, Fatimids, Buyids, Alids and others were formed.
Memory of Hussein
Events related to the murder of Hussein acquiredfor Shiites cult significance. One of the largest Shiite religious events, Shahsei Wahsey, is dedicated to them. These are fast days in which Shiites mourn for the murdered Imam Hussein. The most fanatical of them themselves inflict quite heavy wounds, as if symbolizing the suffering of the third Imam.
In addition, the Shiites made pilgrimages to Karbala - the place of death and burial of Hussein ibn Ali.
As we have seen, the personality, life and death of Imam Hussein underlie such a major Muslim religious movement, as Shiism, which has many followers in the modern world.