/ / The Volga Bulgaria. Disappearing state

The Volga Bulgaria. Disappearing state

Settlement of the territory, which is currentlybelongs to the inhabitants of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Chuvash Republic, began about 100,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic era. At the end of the 9th century and at the beginning of the 10th century the first feudal state, the Volga Bulgaria, arose here. For a long time it was the only developed state in the territory of the extreme East of Europe. Presumably, the Bulgars were the earliest Turkic group, which in the process of the Great Migration of Nations was among the advanced to Europe.

Volga Bulgaria
Persian and Arabic geographers VolzhskayaBulgaria was considered the most northern Muslim country in the world. The date of adoption of Islam in this country is considered to be 922 years. It was then that the caliph of Baghdad sent a group of the future embassy to the city of Bolgar, which included builders and preachers of Islam. In connection with the fact that the mighty neighbor, the Khazar Khaganate, the tsar of Bulgaria Almush was constantly pressing the state, he was forced to accept Islam and become loyal to the caliph of Bogdad. Thus, he was able to strengthen the defense of his country, becoming an ally of the Arab Caliphate. But there were also Bulgars who refused to accept Islam. This group, headed by Prince Wyrag, separated. This gave impetus to the emergence of the Chuvash nation. Later the people adopted Christianity and became the only Orthodox Turkic people.

Volga Tatars
During its development the Volga Bulgariahas achieved a lot. According to the written source of that period, this state was called a country of thousands of cities. The largest cities were Bilyar and Bolgar, which in terms of area and population exceeded such cities as London, Kiev, Paris, Novgorod. For example, Bolgar was three times more than Paris. In its central part rose the royal palace and the Cathedral Mosque. Already at that time in the city were built baths with tap water. In the houses there was heating and sewerage. In addition to the above, the state was also called the country of reason. And these are not empty words. Here, such sciences as medicine, history, astronomy, and mathematics have reached a great development.

The highest flourishing of the Volga Bulgaria reached inthe reign of Emir Gabdulla Chelbir. During this period the Bulgars were quite strong in the art of war. This is confirmed by the fact that the Volga Bulgars are the only people who could defeat Genghis Khan's troops in 1223. After that, the Mongols for 13 years unsuccessfully stormed the Bulgarian state. Only in 1229, having collected all their forces at the river Yaik (Ural), the Mongols were able to defeat the Bulgars and Polovtsians and began to move rapidly across the territory of the state, and in 1936 it was completely ruined. Part of the Bulgars fled and found protection from the great Vladimir prince.

Bulgars Tatars

As early as 1240, the Bulgarian state entered thecomposition of the Golden Horde. For a long time, there were mass uprisings of the Bulgars. According to Khudyakov MG, the end of hopes for the return of the former state was laid by the pillage of the capital - the city of Bolgar - and the transfer of the cultural and political center to Kazan. The Kazan Khanate has now firmly consolidated itself in these lands. The remaining indigenous residents had to adapt to the new authorities. Gradually, the creation of mixed families of Bulgars-Tatars, however, all new-born children were considered Tatars. There was, so to say, the "eradication" of such a nationality as the Bulgars, and the emergence of a new - the Volga Tatars.

As for the Bulgar language, it is simplyhas died. Many scientists have tried to find in the modern Tatar language at least a few words, close to the Bulgarian origin. However, here it is necessary to take into account another nationality - the Chuvash. If you recall, this is the part of the Turkic group that did not accept Islam and separated. They speak the archaic Turkic language, which is not like any other language. And when comparing the ancient chronicles of the Volga Bulgars and the Chuvash language, you can find many identical words. In a word, the Chuvash language is as close to the Bulgarian as possible.

0

Similar news